Myopia And Presbyopia Eye Drops

Myopia And Presbyopia Eye Drops: An Overview


Myopia, also known as near-sightedness, is a common vision condition where the eyes cannot focus light correctly on the retina. This makes distant objects appear blurry, while close objects are seen clearly. Myopia occurs when the eyeball grows longer than normal or when the cornea has too much curved shape. This results in light rays focusing in front of the retina instead of directly on it. According to studies, around one-third of the global population suffer from myopia. It is considered a refractive error as it can be corrected with eyeglasses, contact lenses or refractive surgery.

Causes and risk factors of Myopia

The exact causes for myopia are not fully known but both genetic and environmental factors are believed to play a role. Some of the major risk factors associated with myopia include family history of near-sightedness, younger age, excessive near work like studying or screen time, lack of time spent outdoors and Asian ethnicity. Children who spend more time outdoors during daylight hours are less likely to develop myopia as compared to kids who spend more time indoors doing near work. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light in sunlight is thought to protect the eyes in some way. Genes are also considered an important determinant as people with Myopia And Presbyopia Eye Drops parents have higher chances of being nearsighted.

Symptoms of Myopia

The main symptom of myopia is blurred vision, especially for distant objects. Some other common signs and symptoms include:

– Difficulty seeing the board in the classroom from the back of the room.

– Straining of eyes or headaches after close work like reading.

– Difficulty recognizing faces of people who are far away.

– Avoidance of distant activities like sports as they cannot see clearly.

– Frequently squinting or rubbing eyes to see better.

– Holding reading material, books or mobile very close to focus.

Myopia Treatment Options

For milder degrees of myopia, simple corrective lenses like glasses or contacts are highly effective in improving vision. Some other treatment options include:

– Orthokeratology contact lenses: Hard contact lenses worn overnight can temporarily reshape the cornea and reduce myopia progression.

– Refractive surgery: Lasik or PRK surgery uses excimer lasers to surgically reshape the cornea and reduce dependency on glasses. It provides permanent vision correction for mild to moderate myopia.

– Atropine eye drops: Low-dose atropine drops have shown success in slowing the worsening of nearsightedness in children. However, side effects like light sensitivity may occur.

– Punctal plugs: Thin silicone plugs placed in tear ducts can aid in slowing myopia progression by restricting tear outflow and creating a moist environment.

– specialty contact lenses: Dual-focus or multifocal designs can help manage both distance and near vision in myopic presbyopes.

What is Presbyopia?

Presbyopia is an age-related refractive condition where eyes lose the ability to focus on close objects. As people get older, the natural crystalline lens inside the eyes gradually loses elasticity making it difficult to flex and change shape as needed for near vision tasks. Presbyopia typically develops after the age of 40 and slowly progresses over the next decade or more. The condition becomes noticeable when reading glasses are needed to see things clearly close up. Nearly everyone will experience Myopia And Presbyopia Eye Drops to some degree by the age of 45. Genetic factors determine the exact ages presbyopia tends to occur.

Causes of Presbyopia

The main reason behind presbyopia is the natural aging process of the lens inside the eye. As we grow old, the lens loses elastic fibers making it stiff. This inability of the lens to change shape easily prevents it from remodeling when focusing on near objects. Some other considerations:

– Gravitational forces act on the lens over a lifetime weakening its muscles over time.

– Proteins in the lens cortex break down gradually making it harder and less flexible.

– Metabolic activity in the lens declines as we age reducing nutritional support to lens fibers.

Symptoms of Presbyopia

The two hallmark signs of presbyopia are having difficulties seeing things up close clearly and complaints related to reading tasks:

– Holding reading material further away to focus on words and lines

– Difficulty threading a needle or doing other near tasks

– Squinting to see phone/tablet screens or computer monitor

– Complaints of eyestrain, headache or blurry close vision

– Trouble seeing ingredients while cooking or doing DIY tasks

Presbyopia Treatment Options

Following options are effective in treating presbyopia:

– Reading glasses: Single vision lenses help focus only on near objects by adding plus diopter power. Cheapest but only effective near up.

– Bifocal glasses: Have two prescriptions- one for distance and one lower segment for reading in the lenses. Works both ways but takes getting used to.

– Progressive lenses/no-line bifocals: Gradually change prescription from top to bottom for smooth transition between distance and near. More natural but expensive.

– Contact lenses: Multifocal, monovision or extended depth of focus designs provide intermediate and near vision correction.

While very promising, more mid to long-term clinical research is still needed to validate the efficacy and safety of myopia and presbyopia eye drops. Studies involving thousands of subjects over 5-10 years are required to thoroughly evaluate factors like long-term progression control, side effect profile with extended use, potential rebound effects after stopping treatment, and stability of improved vision. Researchers are constantly working to develop newer drug candidates and formulations addressing current limitations. If successful, these eyedrops could revolutionize vision care globally through their accessibility and convenience.

1.  Source: Coherent Market Insights, Public sources, Desk research
2. We have leveraged AI tools to mine information and compile it