Automotive Tire Pressure Monitoring System

Ensuring Road Safety: The Role And Functioning Of Automotive Tire Pressure Monitoring System


Introduction to TPMS

Automotive tire pressure monitoring system or TPMS is an automotive safety device that monitors the air pressure inside the pneumatic tires mounted on various types of motor vehicles. TPMS notifies the driver about significantly under inflated tires in order to avoid unsafe driving conditions. A simple and basic TPMS will show only a low tire pressure warning sign on the dashboard of the vehicle. More advanced systems may also show the pressure of individual tires.

How does a Tire Pressure Monitoring System work?

A TPMS works with sensors and receivers mounted on each wheel. Each individual sensor has an ID code and gathers air pressure and temperature data from inside the tire. This data is transmitted wirelessly to the receiver module, usually placed centrally in the vehicle cabin. The receiver module processes the data and compares Automotive Tire Pressure Monitoring System with pre-set limits. If any tire crosses the lower pressure threshold, the module triggers a low pressure warning. This warning alert can be a simple light or symbol on the dashboard or a more advanced display showing the actual pressure reading of under inflated tire(s).

Key Components of a TPMS

The main components of a TPMS are:

TPMS Sensors: Sensors are mounted onto each wheel beside the valve stem. They contain pressure and temperature detectors along with a battery and radio transmitter.

Receiver Module: A central processing unit located under the dashboard receives wireless signals from sensors and regulates warning alerts.

Warning Indication: Low pressure warnings are displayed via dashboard lights, symbols or detailed pressure readouts for drivers.

Threshold Settings: Threshold lower pressure limits for each tire can be set and programmed into the receiver module.

Technologies Used In TPMS

There are two main Automotive Tire Pressure Monitoring System technologies used – direct and indirect:

Direct TPMS: Sensors transmit air pressure and temperature data directly to the receiver module. This is the most accurate method but sensors need regular battery replacement.

Indirect TPMS: Wheel speed sensors already present in ABS/VSC systems are utilized to detect pressure loss based on rotational irregularities. Less accurate than direct but sensors have no batteries.

Benefits of a Properly Functioning TPMS

Improved vehicle safety: Driving with under inflated tires reduces control and braking performance putting occupants at risk.

Fuel economy gains: Properly inflated tires have lower rolling resistance improving mileage. Low pressure reduces this benefit.

Even tire wear: Uniform pressure across tires prevents premature or uneven tread wear patterns.

Reduced repair costs: Identifying low pressure early avoids potential damage to tires through operation.

Consumer Awareness and Regulations

To raise consumer awareness on safely managing tire pressures, the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration made TPMS mandatory on all passenger cars from 2008 model year onwards. Similar regulations were later enforced in Canada and Europe as well requiring systems to be fitted in all new vehicle types.

While TPMS provides an effective warning, drivers must also regularly check pressures manually using a pressure gauge. Battery life of direct sensors can vary requiring potential future replacements otherwise the whole system may cease working. Proper tire inflation not only depends on the monitoring system but responsible ownership as well.

Automotive tire pressure monitoring systems are an important automotive safety feature. They help alert drivers of under inflated tires to avoid potential accidents. Direct and indirect are the two main technologies used. TPMS provides benefits like enhanced stability and control, improved fuel efficiency as well as even tire wear. Government regulations have made them compulsory to fit in recognition of the safety advantages to vehicle occupants.

1. Source: Coherent Market Insights, Public sources, Desk research
2. We have leveraged AI tools to mine information and compile it.